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Co-evolution and Co-speciation of Host-Gut Bacteria Systems

July 8, 2020 0

Summary: In this Perspective, we argue that the co-diversification of gut bacteria with their mammalian hosts is not the result of co-evolution, as commonly believed. Rather, we suggest it arises as the indirect consequence of mammalian speciation occurring through geographic isolation, limiting inter-host bacterial dispersal and gene flow. Source: Cell […]

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JAcked Responses Go Viral: Hormonal Regulation of Antiviral RNAi

July 8, 2020 0

Summary: Little is known about the mechanism that regulates the core steps of antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in plants and animals. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Yang et al. (2020) provide compelling evidence for the regulation of antiviral RNAi by the jasmonate hormone signaling in plants. Source: […]

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Everything Illuminated—Clostridium perfringens β-toxin

July 8, 2020 0

Summary: In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Bruggisser et al. show that Clostridium perfringens β-toxin (CPB) binds platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 also known as CD31) to induce membrane pores. The discovery explains the cell type specificity for CPB and, in large part, the basic pathophysiology of disease. […]

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Going Keto? Say βHB-ye Bye to Your Gut Bifidobacteria

July 8, 2020 0

Summary: Ketogenic diets (KDs) are popularly used to aid a myriad of conditions. KDs induce metabolic changes, but how microbiome alterations contribute to these changes remains unexplored. In a recent Cell paper, Ang et al. identify KD-specific changes to the gut microbiota linked to a reduction in pro-inflammatory Th17 cells. Source: […]

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Not Your Typical Anti-CRISPR

July 8, 2020 0

Summary: In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, two papers by Osuna et al. describe the characterization of AcrIIA1, an anti-CRISPR protein distributed widely among Listeria phages. AcrIIA1 functions as an anti-CRISPR and as a dynamic repressor of acr loci, suggesting it may play an important role in lysogeny. Source: […]

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Call to Action: How to Tackle Emerging Nosocomial Fungal Infections

June 10, 2020 Admin 0

Category: Summary: Nosocomial fungal infections require a robust scientific response to complement antifungal development and the implementation of infection control measures. This Commentary discusses how a parallel effort to address fungal pathogenesis and antifungal immunity, the mycobiota and colonization resistance, and risk factors is essential to reduce the toll of […]

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The Tumour Suppressor TMEM127 Is a Nedd4-Family E3 Ligase Adaptor Required by Salmonella SteD to Ubiquitinate and Degrade MHC Class II Molecules

June 10, 2020 0

Summary: Salmonella inhibits the adaptive immune response by reducing cell surface levels of mature MHC class II. Alix et al. reveal that the Salmonella effector SteD co-opts TMEM127, a tumor suppressor protein of previously unknown function. TMEM127 binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 enabling ubiquitination and degradation of MHCII and SteD. […]

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MARVellous Sidekick Antibodies

June 10, 2020 Admin 0

Category: Summary: Human monoclonal antibodies are immune weapons that hold great promise for treating Marburg virus (MARV) infection. In this issue, Ilinykh et al. unveil non-neutralizing inhibitory properties of antibodies to the Wing region of the viral spike, which alongside with neutralizers are pivotal to in vivo protection against MARV infection. Source: […]

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IgA Summons IgG to Take a Hit at HIV-1

June 10, 2020 Admin 0

Category: Summary: In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Jia et al. used a vesicular stomatitis virus-based probe to isolate B cells expressing broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Besides identifying neutralizing epitopes, this study highlights potential protection afforded by IgA arising from either direct IgM-to-IgA or sequential IgM-to-IgG-to-IgA class switching. Source: […]